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伦敦骚乱的起因

8月9日《泰晤士报》的头版头条说得比较准确:《暴徒横行、警方弃守》(Mobs rule as police surrender streets),这次伦敦骚乱在短时间内迅速蔓延,确实是伦敦警方执法不力造成的。

虽然伦敦骚乱可能有深层原因,也许是因为黑人社区长期积郁的对警方的不满忽然爆发,也许如Channel 4 News 这条新闻中所说,是滋事者“太闲”或是英国社会的贫富差距,但是导致骚乱忽然扩大的原因是星期六晚上警方对滋事份子的放任,让这些人觉得警方软弱,管不了他们,于是一帮十几岁的小混混,不分男女,就开始蜂拥而上咱商店放火了。

这次骚乱的直接导火线是伦敦警方枪杀一名黑人青年Mark Duggan,星期六死者家属朋友到 Tottenham Hale警署门口和平示威,到了晚上却演变成了打砸抢,同时警方只在街道一头组成人墙拦截,对于几十米远的犯罪活动却不介入阻止。这样的画面整个晚上都在电视上,显然鼓励了其他人第二天照样学样。

警方不主动出手制止犯罪活动,一方面是警力薄弱,一方面是缺乏决断。伦敦警方目前处于群龙无首的状态,警察总长和负责反恐的副总长刚刚因为窃听手机留言案辞职,其它高层都在渡假。同时伦敦市长、内务大臣、副首相、首相都在海外渡假。对于这一突发事件,本来就没有准备,发生之后恐怕也没人拍板迅速处理,指望骚乱者自行散去。结果却是刚好相反,两天之内暴力蔓延,警方处于手忙脚乱、左支右拙中,更加无法对付骚乱者,于是鼓励更多人参与打劫,陷入恶性循环中。

在英国的政治环境中,对付这样的骚乱本来应该是保守党政府的强项,但是这次骚乱却让联合政府措手不及,卡梅伦迟了一天回国,就对他的声誉造成了很大影响。如果不能立刻平息骚乱的话,卡梅伦的首相位置恐怕就坐不长了。

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